HOW TO PLANT
Trees are like children:
you get out of them what you put into them. The more you can help with
fertilizer and good conditions, the faster they will grow and the sooner
will come into production. New plants haven't developed enough feeder
roots or storage roots to find and store the water they need to survive,
so you must water new plants. Water with intelligence, not just on a
rigid schedule. Place your finger in the soil above the plant's roots
each day. If the soils is dry, water. If the soil is not dry then do
not. The roots of a tree need oxygen, and too much water deprives them
of that. Harming a plant's roots when it is young can negatively affect
the plant for the rest of its life.
Your planting site selection
should be well-drained (better than apple trees require), non-low lying area, sandy loam soils with a pH
between 5.0-6.5. The best location is a south slope, with good air and water drainage - avoid frost pockets. A sheltered north-facing slope protected from drying winds and low sun of winter may be better for cold windy sites.
The most common mistake in chestnut cultivation is to plant them on sites that are too wet or too "heavy" (too much clay). Dense clay soils stunt root growth and hold on to too much water, leading to weak, slow-growing trees. Clay soils can be tolerated if there is good surface drainage (slope), but chestnuts do best on deep, sandy loams. Full sun (8hrs) is required for fruit and nut production minimum of 6
hours of full sun. Non-filtered sun. Prepare the area by removing any weeds prior to planting. This step is often overlooked but is absolutely critical to any successful planting. Weeds and grass steal light, water and nutrients from your trees. We recommend weed mats.
Plant at least 2 trees for pollination, but production is better with more trees when planted 20-50’ apart. By matching your chestnut tree with a closely related cultivar (2 or more Dunstan varieties are all you need), the blooming periods should match. Ideal spacing for nut production is between 30-40' apart.
Dig the hole twice as wide
as the pot but no deeper than the root-ball. Do not add soil amendments to the soil such as compost, peat,mulch or
organic matter, this acts like a sponge and increases root rot and robs the
trees of nitrogen from the fertilizer (microbes breaking down the organic
matter use nitrogen in the process). Also, do not use fertilizer, potting soil, or chemicals on your young trees.
Carefully remove the tree from the pot keeping the soil around the roots intact. It helps to tap the outside of the container to loosen the edge. Do not yank the tree out of the container as this can separate the roots from the tree. Carefully separate the roots if they are root bound.
Plant the tree at the same height they were grown in the pot, not deeper. Bare root trees will have a noticeable color difference between the roots and the trunk. Plant at the depth of this color difference.
Partially fill in the planting hole with the native soil. Set the tree in the middle of the hole. Avoid planting the tree too deep. Using some soil, secure the tree in a straight position, then fill with native soil and firming the soil around the lower roots making sure there are no air pockets. Keep back-filling until the soil is level with the root collar.
We recommend creating a water-holding basin around the hole
and water the trees in thoroughly at planting. Remove the berm at the
end of the second growing season. Water slowly at the drip-line. Water
in thoroughly, making sure there are no air pockets around the roots.
Air pockets prevent roots from growing into the soil around it. After
the water has soaked in, spread a protective layer of mulch 2-4" deep
around the trunk pulling the mulch a few inches away from the trunk for good air circulation.
Choices for mulch, leaf litter, hay, shredded or fine bark, pine
needles or use weed mats to prevent weed competition and to reduce water evaporation.
We recommend keeping the pot stake attached to the tree for 1 season. After 1 season you can remove the pot stake. If using Grow Tubes then staking the tree is not necessary.
If staking is necessary, hold the trunk with one hand to find the
height at which the unsupported top can stand up on its own and will
spring back to a vertical position if lightly flexed. Allow trees a
slight amount of flex rather than holding them rigidly in place. Tree
straps should be made of material that will not injure or girdle the
Instructions for staking trees
Remove any ties, tags and labels from trees to prevent girdling trunks and branches.
WATERING NEW TREES
Water is the single most important factor for tree survival. If the year you plant is like the severe drought experienced by the Midwest several summers ago, if you do not water your trees they will die. The truth is that many trees die from too little or too much water during the first few months after planting. Trees are likely to get too little water in well-drained soil and too much in soil that is poorly drained. We recommend for best success to supplemental water your newly planted trees for the first two years.
The amount of water needed is dependent on your
soil, temperatures and rainfall.
Newly planted trees planted in the spring should be watered regularly (2-4x/week) for the first year or two especially if rains are infrequent. Water thoroughly but do not over-water; the soil should dry down slightly between watering. Irrigation from lawn sprinklers is generally not sufficient until the plants are well established. This is the most critical step in the establishment of your new trees!
If you plant in the fall, water in at planting, and then 1x/week until they lose their leaves and go dormant with the onset of winter. Resume watering after leaf out in the spring. Make sure water is applied to the original root ball. Adjust water according to soil type, temperature, rainfall, and other irrigation.
Make sure water is applied to the original
root ball. Adjust water according to soil type,
temperature, rainfall, and other irrigation.
Normally the East receives
rainfall from frontal rains during the spring and fall, and rain storms and
tropical storms in the summer. However, rainfall is not sufficient for the
needs of your trees, especially in sandy soils. There are often dry periods
during the fall and spring when it will not rain for weeks, which can hurt tree
growth, flowering or fruit production.
Despite seasonal rains,
watering is very important, especially during the year after planting. If
possible, drip irrigation systems are the most water efficient and should be
installed if at possible to insure survival and healthy growth. These are
inexpensive, easy to install, and available at most home-improvement or
landscape supply stores. They are insurance for your planting.
However, most food plots
do not have access to wells for irrigation. In this case it is very important
to haul water to the trees, such as with a tank mounted on your ATV or truck.
Tanks are inexpensive and available at most farm supply stores in varying sizes.
A 5 gallon bucket with a 1/16” hole drilled just above the bottom can be filled
from the tank, and will also catch rain.
In addition, we highly
recommend the use of Grow Tubes, which will recycle the transpiration moisture
given off of the leaves at night.
Do not fertilize at planting
Fertilizers can burn the tender roots of young trees before they
become established. When planting bareroot trees or 1 yr old potted trees we
recommend waiting to fertilize them after one year of being planted.
For two year old or older trees we recommend waiting at least two
months after planting then fertilize with a time-released fertilizer
such as Scotts Osmocote Plus Outdoor & indoor (15-9-12) or Espoma Holly Tone, or Tree Tone Organic Fertilizer. After
applying the fertilizer make sure you water your trees for absorption.
Your local extension service
will make recommendations along with the soil test. Strong rains can also leach
away much of the Nitrogen, which is highly soluable. Nitrogen is a key element
required for plant growth.
It is important to provide
a balanced fertilizer time
release with minor
Minors are very important because if they are not available in certain
as they can be a limiting factor for plant growth. We recommend using
Scotts Osmocote Plus for younger trees Outdoor/indoor (15-9-12) or Espoma
Holly Tone or Tree Tone Organic Fertilizer recommend amount per directions.
the fertilizer evenly under the entire canopy of the tree avoiding a
5-inch area around the trunk. Mix in top 1-3 " of soil, then water in.
For mature trees 10 yrs and older we recommend using Scotts Osmocote Flower & Vegetable
(14-14-14), Espoma Holly tone or Tree Tone Organic Fertilizer recommended amount per directions.
the trees are established, fertilize in early spring (Mar-April) when
growth begins and again in early June with the start of summer rains.
Do not fertilize in the fall, which can promote late season tender
growth that can be damaged by early frosts.
best time to fertilize fruit trees is during the growing season,
starting in early spring (after bud break) and finishing by July.
Do not expect your trees to grow rapidly from
the very start.After transplanting, the
trees put a majority of their energy into root production and then are able to make rapid
growth in the following years.
Why we do not recommend Fertilizing in the Fall?
Fertilizing too late in the season can cause trees to grow when they should be shutting down for the winter. This tender new growth, when pushed too late in the season, is also more susceptible to winter injury.
Soil's acidity or
alkalinity is determined by pH. The best range for growing most fruit and
flowering trees is between 5-6.5. Soils in much of the South fall within
this range. Soils in pine woods are often lower (4.0-5.0) , and need to be
raised by the application of lime or dolomite (see your County Agent for a soil
test and recommended rates). Other areas (such as Texas) have soils with
pH>7, which will need to be acidified or lowered by the application of
nitrogen sulfate or other sulfur-based fertilizers.
It is important to keep
grass and weeds from competing with young trees - they are the biggest
competitor for young trees and steal water and fertilizer from the new
plantings. Try to keep a 2-3' circle clear of weeds from the base of the trunk.
Mulch moderates soil temperature extremes and helps moisture retention as well as keeps weed
growth down. We recommend Grow Tubes, because you can spray Roundup or other
herbicides close to the tree without hitting the stem. If you do not use Grow
Tubes, be very careful with herbicide, especially on young trees, because they
can absorb it directly through the bark. It only takes a few drops to kill the
tree; so apply only when there is no wind, use a colored dye mixed in the
herbicide so you can see it being applied and protect the trunk with a shield
or hood on the fertilizer wand.
Late spring freezes are a
problem in northern locations, especially after the plants have leafed out. If
your trees have already started to grow and you expect a late freeze, then you
should make every effort to protect them, such as using Grow Tubes and other protective
measures. Some areas even in Zone 5 can have killing frosts as late as Memorial
Day! Click for information on properly using frost cloth
For fruit trees such as
apples or pears that leaf out early in the spring, painting the trunks with
white latex paint reflects heat and slows down the sap flow and potential
freeze damage from trees starting to push too soon after a warm winter
Most plants including
chestnuts, apples, pears, oaks, blueberries and some grapes need more than one
variety to cross-pollinate and bear fruit. We will make sure that you receive
more than one variety when you order 2 or more of these types of trees. Plant
no farther than 50’ apart for best pollination.
Pruning is usually
necessary only in the first several years to shape the tree to its appropriate
form – central leader, modified leader or open-vase (see pictures). Most nut
trees grow naturally with a straight trunk (central leader) with only a little
Occasional pruning is necessary to open the center of the tree for greater light and air penetration. Light annual pruning of dead wood or an out-of-place branch
helps older trees by rejuvenating growth and promoting better fruit production.
Instructions for Chestnut Pruning
General pruning tips
Some trees may require annual pruning to produce the best fruit. With peaches, the top is cut at
planting to open up the center of the tree for light to get in for fruit
ripening. The branches grow out in a vase shape. New growth is cut back each
winter, to create a better crop with larger sized fruit. Fruit-thinning may be
necessary if the crop load is too high.
and blackberries are pruned back after fruit harvest to grow vegetative
shoots over the summer that will bear next year’s fruit. Grape vines
are pruned back to main fruiting limbs during the winter to promote
optimum production the next year.
Many gardeners are afraid to
prune, but you should not be. Learning to do a little pruning will
greatly benefit your trees and increase their productivity.
Open vase pruning in peaches central leader pruning in oaks
Grow Tubes are plastic translucent to specific sunlight tubes that act as mini-greenhouses that protect and nurture growth of small seedlings until the tree is big enough to survive on its own. Grow Tubes are valuable planting aides, especially in locations where there is less opportunity for care, such as forest or wildlife plantings, or where there is predation by deer, mice and other critters. Remove the tree stake as it is not necessary when using grow tubes.
Grow tubes help with weed control (by protecting the tree from spray and drift from herbicide) and offer cold protection in late season frosts. They can dramatically increase growth rates, and small trees often grow out of the top of a 4' tube in 1 season! We recommend Grow Tubes in many plantings.
DO NOT USE BLACK PLASTIC DRAIN PIPE OR ANY NON-VENTED TUBING AS SHELTER – THEY WILL DAMAGE THE YOUNG TREE!
PROTECTION FROM BROWSING
If you don't use Grow Tubes deer will rowse the tops of the young trees. If pressure is high it may be necessary to build cages to protect your investment. The best cages are made with 4 metal T-posts driven in the ground in a 4’ - 5' diameter circle around the tree, and then 5-6’ heavy wire fencing is wrapped around the T-posts and secured with Zip-ties. The Grow Tubes stay on the trees inside the cages to protect against small animals and all of the other benefits. In areas with bear or lots of deer, a cage may be the only way to allow your trees to grow.
HELP WITH MOST COMMON PESTS
have relatively few pests.
First you will need to identify the pests and in many cases you can apply cultural and chemical management practices.
1) Identify what type of bug(s) it is, by either self identification or by contacting your county local extension office to help with identification.
2) Go to your local garden center to make your purchase most offer an array of either traditional or organic products. * important to consider the benefits in using organic products vs using traditional products and the Negative impact many chemicals have on pollinators (bees, butterflies etc) and our waterways.
Helpful Resource link to many common pests. Click HERE
can be a severe problem in certain areas. Click HERE for recommendations on
control techniques.Click HERE for more control techniques
Chestnut Gall Wasp – introduced by accident on
budwood brought in illegally from China, this small wasp lays its egg in the
growing shoots of the tree, causing a red colored gall to form and contorts the
growth of the shoots. It can
dramatically affection nut production. However, there is a predator wasp of the
native Oak Gall Wasp that also preys on Chestnut Gall Wasp, and the population
rise in Chestnut Gall Wasp usually triggers a rise in the predator wasp, and eventually
the Chestnut Gall Wasp population declines and gets back into ecological
balance. For more information click
best prevention is to never buy trees from nurseries that are in Gall Wasp
territory (essentially all of the eastern U.S. except Florida). You cannot tell if budwood or trees are
infected because the larvae are microscopic and not visible to the eye.
Chestnut Weevil –
this pest is spread throughout
much of the eastern U.S. It is a small
insect that lays its egg in the forming nuts on the tree, resulting in a
inside the nut. The nuts fall to the
ground, the worms crawl out of the nut and burrow underground, emerging
next summer as adults to repeat the cycle. There are chemical, cultural and post-harvest treatments available to
control chestnut weevils. Ideally, a combination of cultural and
chemical management would control the pest and eliminate the need for
post-harvest treatment, which can diminish quality and the marketable
yield. For more information click
Ambrosia Beetles - Ambrosia beetles were introduced into the Southeastern United States from Asia. Although it is still primarily a southeastern pest, the beetle is spreading into other areas.
They are rarely seen because
of their small size and the fact that they spend most of their lives
Most ambrosia beetles attack weakened, injured or dying trees and shrubs. Some attach fresh-cut wood as well. A few species attack apparently healthy trees and shrubs.
The first signs of damage by this beetle are fading or wilting of the
foliage on the terminals of infested twigs and branches. Close
inspection will reveal the presence of a tiny entry hole on the
underside of the affected branch.
The symptoms of an infestation and granulate ambrosia beetle damage are
unmistakable. As the female beetle tunnels, strands of boring dust,
which look like toothpicks, extend from the tree. Young trees infested
with the beetles usually die, but older trees may survive.
These beetles carry a fungus in their
mandibles with which they inoculate the trees they infest. The larvae
feeds on the fungus colonies, and it’s the fungus that is usually fatal
to the tree.
Ambrosia beetles sometimes attack healthy trees, but they
are especially attracted to trees suffering from stress. The insects
enter at sites with damaged bark. Most ambrosia beetle
prevention begins with reducing stress associated with trees.
Prevent stress as much as possible by watering the tree deeply during
dry spells and keeping it on a schedule of regular fertilization as
recommended for the species. Remove and destroy severely infested trees
to prevent the infestation from spreading.
The initial attack by this beetle occurs in the spring. The first major adult is in mid-to late-February when temperatures exceed 65F.
As the female bores into the wood, a thin, toothpick-like strand of
sawdust is pushed from the tunnel. This may extend an inch or more from
the surface of the bark. While the females prefer to attack stems under
three inches in diameter they will attack stems up to eight inches in
diameter. The entry hole is about 2 mm in diameter. The tunnel goes
straight into the heartwood and then opens into a cave-like brood
gallery with one or two side galleries.
major emergence of females occurs in early spring. Host plants may be heavily attacked at this
time. If the host is vigorous enough, the beetles may be drowned or
forced out by heavy sap flow. If the host is weak or not producing large
amounts of sap, the attack will be successful.
Sprays that contain pyrethroids are effective at preventing ambrosia
beetles from entering a tree. Use the spray according to the label
instructions when you know that there are ambrosia beetles in the area.
You may have to spray as often as every two or three weeks
these treatments fail, and the trees die, all the research says to cut
down the dead tree and burn it. Chipping does not get rid of the
Homeowners with valuable trees on their property should consider
consulting an arborist. These professionals can assess a tree to
determine the extent of the infestation and help you decide whether to
try to save the tree. They also have additional products at their
disposal that may help prevent the spread of infestation. For more information click HERE
|Complete planting instructions can be downloaded by clicking the links below
FALL PLANTING INSTRUCTIONS
SPRING PLANTING INSTRUCTIONS